Ketamine generally is a dissociative anesthetic drug that can distort a person’s perceptions of sight and sound. A person senses feeling of detachment from the environment and from one’s self. In low doses, ketamine results in impaired learning, memory, and attention. At higher doses, it can initiate hallucinations and takes a person into a dreamlike state of mind.
The use of ketamine, as a veterinary analgesic, started when it was patented in Belgium in 1963. Consequent testing on people started in 1964 where it was found that ketamine produces minor psychedelic symptoms. In 1965, it was resolved that ketamine could be a safer analgesic to administer to people and all through the historical backdrop of ketamine, it has been demonstrated to have numerous important applications in medicine. Today, it is utilized as a sedative for kids and adults undergoing minor surgeries, however, its principle reason for existing is for veterinary usage, in view of the psychedelic impacts it might deliver in people.
In the 1970s, ketamine became increasingly available for illicit use. Its powder, capsules, injectable solutions, and crystals were found in the illegal drug market. The use of ketamine at the parties and raves is quite common today and despite its differences with MDMA (Molly/Ecstasy), it is often sold as a Ecstasy. Because of the rapid rise of its abuse, usage, and availability, numerous governments have scheduled ketamine and labeled it as dangerous.
Ketamine as an Antidepressant
More recently, ketamine has been found to have potential in treating depression. Research is ongoing, but it’s believed that ketamine can play an integral part in providing relief from depression, and even help reduce depressive disorder symptoms in the long run. It’s important to note, that recreational use of ketamine hasn’t been associated with helping reduce depression.
Dosage & Method of Consumption
Ketamine can be found in the form of powder, capsules, injectable solutions, and crystals. Depending on its form, the way it will be consumed and thus, its onset.
- Insufflated: Snorting ketamine is a common method of administration. Dosage can vary between 50mg to 260mg, and its effect can start within 5 to 15 minutes.
- Intravenously (IV): Dosage can vary between 50mg to 100mg, yielding a quick response occurring within seconds to minutes of administration.
- Orally: Dosage can vary between 200mg to 300mg. This is a slower method of administration, having an onset within 5 to 30 minutes.
Ketamine is readily available to the blood stream when take and induces an abrupt high that lasts for more than an hour. The effects start after 2-5 minutes after the dose has been taken. In an inject able form, it only takes 30 seconds to take effect on the body. The first feeling of high as characterized by users is an overwhelming feeling of relaxation. The following are possible unwanted short-term effects of ketamine.
- Disorientation and Confusion
- Increased heart rate
- Elevated blood pressure
What is a “K-hole”?
Ketamine can induce a state of dissociation (detachment from reality) with visual and auditory hallucination. It occurs at doses just below the dose that would be used for general anesthesia. The dose to induce a k-hole varies from person to person.
Ketamine Isomers: S-Ketamine & R-Ketamine
In chemistry, isomers are molecules that have the same number and types of atoms. The difference is that the atoms are arranged differently.
Illicit dealers sometimes market their product as s-ketamine or r-ketamine to sell it a higher price. Despite their claims, essentially all illicit ketamine is both r-ketamine and s-ketamine together (called racemic ketamine). Using advanced techniques to split racemic ketamine into r- and s-ketamine is costly and time consuming. These isomers are only produced for research and clinical purposes making them extremely difficult to come by.
The fact that most ketamine out there is racemic doesn’t mean it’s somehow inferior or less effective. Studies involving ketamine as an antidepressant has shown that racemic ketamine can be superior to either r- or s-ketamine.
It is very hard to tell the long term side-effects of ketamine because of its excess interactions in the body which are unpredictable. When a person is coming down from ketamine, it’s hard for them to tell whether they’ve injured themselves, as this drug reduces or eliminates pain. As a result people often end up hurting themselves. The long-term effects include severe abdominal pain which is due to the thickening of the bladder and urinary tract. This can force the users to have their bladders removed as it becomes very difficult for them to pass urine. In addition to this, the abuser suffers from various kidney disorders.
The definition of the lethal dose (LD50) is the amount of drug that results in death in 50% of experimental animals tested. Gable et al. determined the oral ketamine safety ratio for rodents as 25 and estimated that the median lethal dose averaged at 11.3 mg/kg (IV) or 678 mg for a 70 kg human.
Because of how pleasant the feeling of being high on ketamine can be, it can lead to serious dependence.
Ketamine sample are sometimes high purity, but often found combined with MDMA, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or cocaine.
Ketamine Test Kit
The following test kit can detect the presence of ketamine: